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Gia Lai people's committee

History - Culture

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1. History

          Land of Gia Lai province is now the oldest inhabited area of ​​ethnic Jrai, with practices Bahnar live in the village. Before French domination set up Highlands, Gia Lai ethnic groups are in the final stages of primitive society transitioned to a classless society.

          From the early years of the 40s of the nineteenth century, the French clergy had infiltrated the area of ​​residence of Ha Tay Bahnar - Chu Pah District and Ha Dong - Dak Doa district to missionaries today. Following the clergy, the French increasingly advancing into North Highland create new change by the divide and rule policy, based on this group against another group, divided Beijing - Shanghai, ethnic divisions in the province, in the region together.

          From the late nineteenth century to the early years of the twentieth century, the French were gradually setting up the ground rules over Gia Lai. After many changes, mergers, splits to the establishment of administrative units in the Central Highlands, 24 - 5 - WHAT 1932 Pleiku Province was established (including agents and dealers Pleiku Cheo Reo) under Decree Governor General of Indochina.

          Prior to August 1945 Revolution, there Pleiku: Pleiku town (founded Day 3 - 12-1929 Decree embassy Central America), An Khe district, Pleikli District, and Chu Ty district Cheo Reo.

          After the successful August Revolution, the name of the province was revolutionary government called Gia Lai. 6 - Month 1946, the French occupied the lands and named Gia Lai province's Pleiku. Since 1946 - 1954, in particular the province of Pleiku, Central Highlands in general go through multiple entities governed according to the text of the colonial government and the puppet government.

          On the side of the revolutionary government, in the resistance war against the French colonialists, the name is Gia Lai province but remain through each different time, Gia Lai province back under the direct leadership of the various agencies in the area area, these districts also repeatedly changed names and administrative boundaries.

          For the Saigon government, although from 1954 until the complete liberation of South Vietnam, the name still called Pleiku province, but the province's appearance has changed many times.

          Since 1954 - 1975 remains the name is Gia Lai province, but the province's administrative boundaries have changed over the different stages of history.

- On 20-9 - 1975, according to the Resolution of the Politburo, Gia Lai and Kon Tum provinces were merged into one called Gia Lai - Kon Tum.

- On 12-8 - 1991, according to the Resolution of the 9th Session VIII legislature, Gia Lai - Kon Tum split into two provinces: Gia Lai and Kon Tum. Since the divided province, Gia Lai further divisions to establish some new districts.

          Until now, Gia Lai Province has 17 administrative units including Pleiku; town of An Khe, Ayun Pa town, and 14 districts: Pah, Ia Grai, Chu Prong, Duc Co, Chu Se, Mang Yang. Dak Doa, Kbang, Kong Chro, Dak Po, Ia Pa, Phu Thien and Krong Pa, Chu Puh. [1]


2. Cultural Characteristics
2.1. Space of Gong Culture in the Central Highlands

  Date 25/11/2005, Organization Science, Education and Culture UNESCO United Nations has officially enroll space of gong culture in the list of masterpieces of intangible cultural and oral traditions of humanity .

Space Highlands gong culture spread throughout 5 Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Lam Dong and owner of unique cultural forms are residents of Central Highlands ethnic groups: Bana, Xedang , Mnong, Coho, Romam, Ede, Jarai ... gongs closely connected with the life of the Highlands, is the voice of the spiritual, the human soul, to express joy, sadness in life , in work and in their daily activities.

Roots, the researchers said, gong as "descendants" of the rock above. Since its early days, the gong was beaten up to celebrate the new rice, down VND; expression of beliefs - a means to communicate with the supernatural ... humming sound deep, powerful bass impulse when, blended with the spring, the wind and the sound of his heart, lives on the same land Highland heaven and humans.

Highlands gongs are a cultural heritage bearing the stamp of time and space. From the categories and methods for recording, payroll and scales to all the systems and performing arts, we'll see what's a multifaceted art range from simple to complex, from small to many, from single to multi-line online ... which reserves all its historic layers of the evolution of music from very early times. Here, any artistic value are located in relation similarities and differences, identify regional personalities of the art. With the rich, unique and diverse from full to partial, can claim a special position of the Central Highlands gongs in the traditional ethnic music Vietnam. Music of the Highlands gong show proficiency gifted players in the application of skills and skills gong hit manipulated. From payroll to the tune gong orchestra, gameplay, presentation, people even without training schools still demonstrate the great virtuoso playing.

To the Highlands, gongs and gong culture is an invaluable asset. Highlands gong music is not only an artistic value has long since been confirmed in social life but also the crystallization of soul mountain rivers through generations. Highlands gongs are not only significant in terms of material as well as the value of art, but a simple "voice" of the human and the divine in the sense of "animism".

Gongs are present in most of the cultural activities, festivals of tribes, from the ear blowing ceremony for newborns to leave grave ceremony, ritual gutters, new rice celebration, ceremony closed warehouse, crashing ceremony buffalo ... or in a listening session ... must have known anhydrous gong.

At the festival, pictures of people dancing round around the sacred fire, inside the wine jar gong sound echoed in the mountains, giving Highlands a cultural space romantic and fanciful. Gongs thus contributing to the epic, the farming culture characterized poetry romantic Highlands, just magnificent.

At the festival, pictures of people dancing round around the sacred fire, inside the wine jar gong sound echoed in the mountains, giving Highlands a cultural space romantic and fanciful. Gongs thus contributing to the epic, the farming culture characterized poetry romantic Highlands, just magnificent.

Exists on land majestic Highlands has thousands of generations, gongs art has developed to a high level. To meet the requirements expressed by different music, the Montagnard minority chose payroll more different gong orchestra:

2 or 3 gong set the: Payroll small but in the sense of many ethnic tribes, this is the oldest permanent. Orchestra 2 Tha gong gong by called, of the Brau; 3 gong orchestra's knob Churu, Bana, Jarai, Gie-Triêng ... also fall into this category.

6 gong gong set common in many ethnic groups: Seamless 6 of the gong by plating; Stang's staging Xodang; Gar gong set of groups, Noong, Prong ethnic Mnong; KPA team gong set Diek Ede. 6 gong orchestra also includes pacifiers as Bih ethnic Ede group. 6 gong set can undertake a rhythm like nipple gong of Ede ethnic group Bih, staging Diek Ede ethnic group Kpa, gong set of ethnic groups Mnong Noong.

11 or 12 the gong set includes 3 gong gongs with knob and 8-9 of the Jarai ethnic (Arab sector), Bana (Tolo industry, Kon K'Deh), who Xodang (Steng sector).

The orchestra gong gong with 3 or more payrolls often have big drum and cymbal pair choe.Rieng 3 gong orchestra's knob Churu, there must be coordination negative bullhorn 6.

Highlands gong set is organized as a performing orchestra can polyphonic music with various forms of harmony.

Folk artists performing gong together harmoniously, creating music with rhythm, harmony sound is very rich, nuanced tones separately with numerous.

Every nation on this land there Highlands gongs own music to express the beauty of nature, of human aspirations ... The Giarai have all gong Juan, Trum ... The Bana wine entries gong: Xa Trang, Sakapo, atau, Toroi ... the sound of the gong was leaven appeal to younger girls excitedly dancing the whole community in the festival of the village. This is living folklore most striking in the Central Highlands ethnic groups.

Ethnic groups in the Central Highlands gong to use own way to play the music of their own ethnicity. Over the years, the gong has become characteristic culture, full of charm. Gong is the life of the Highlands. Listen gong space would be found hunting, farming space, space ... Highland Festival.

It can be asserted, cultural and musical talent gong cultural creativity - art at the peak of the Central Highlands ethnic groups. And so, it deserves to be honored by UNESCO as a masterpiece of intangible cultural and oral traditions of humanity. [2]

2.2. Epic Highlands

Highlands is known as the land of myth, besides the value of the cultural space of gong music was recognized by UNESCO as "Cultural Heritage intangible" of humanity, the Highlands is also a " the epic "with the outstanding people remain forever with it's villages Dam San, AmaTrang Long; Heroes (Ding) Hiding ...

Heritage epic folklore best of Gia Lai natives. Both ethnic Jrai and Bahnar are epic, but so far, the number of extant epic Bahnar community more than those in the community who Jrai. The epic is called hormone Bhnar people who Jrai called akhan or HRI.

In Gia Lai, Epic was discovered and first published in 1982, is the epic of ethnic Bahnar Noi Dam, far Gia Lai has published 6 epic. According to current statistics, the province has 21 artisans in typical epic Bahnar 4 Kbang district, Dak Po, Dak Doa, Kong Chro with over 67 articles have been inventoried Epic, collection and recording. Some representative works such as Hoang Oh Jotruch Jia, Cang Konang Gro Dak Jong, Jong Ung, h'nong Jong - Jong Ju (himself another war because buffalo eat rice), Joong curious Klep Silk Set (Asking for rice Set meal), me Toh Jia (mother abandoned Jia, the battle to avenge his brother and father), Rubble Joong (Chang Joong and fight with wild boar), H'rel jA, H'rel Jang (the fight for Komar Jam eat rice buffalo), H'rit Le (fighting for proposal published within the past H'rit) ... epic Highland treasure is an invaluable cultural treasure, the spiritual food can not lack of Montagnard. Epic exist as oral and written, but most folk origin, whose works only after 1-2 nights, but also have to mention the work lasted 4-5 days, depending on the night imaginative, uplifting the status of the narrator. The beauty of the epic Highlands is in a unique way to tell. Despite the length of the hundreds, thousands of sentences, but still have the old heart. They are artists, are "living treasure", contributing to keeping the priceless spiritual values ​​of the Highlands. And every night the fire along the floor inside the brew drunk to the village elder mused still tell their children to hear, for they are a more important reason is the ardent love and passion for cultural capital priceless cultural nationalism. For them every time since the epic is every time is to take part, the atmosphere was revived community life hundreds of years ago ... On the other hand, the magical scenery of the night, the space created mountains as a space - time which is also very true legend and incredible life.

With the cultural and spiritual values ​​invaluable, epic Highlands has contributed to the appearance of the rich ethnic cultural identity in a mythical land. Bahnar today still appreciate, cherish and look forward to bringing epic epic back to life its spirit. They still think it was the sacred heritage of his father to leave and want to restore the vitality of the epic in the community in a form suitable for contemporary life; that is the potential of internal resources to help Epic longer lasting and Bahnar lives in the community. Date 19/12/2014 Epic (Humen) of Bahnar on cultural heritage list of intangible countries. This is a great honor for the people Bahnar 04 east districts of the province in particular and the people of the province in general, contribute to preserving the unique cultural values ​​of the area Gia Lai, while promoting Gia Lai photos to friends domestically and internationally.


[1] Theo lịch sử Đảng bộ tỉnh Gia Lai (1945-2005)

[2] Theo chuyên trang Di sản thế giới

 

 

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PORTAL GIA LAI | Agencies: People's Committee of Gia Lai province
© 2010 Copyright belongs to the People's Committee of Gia Lai province.
01 Hai Bà Trưng, Pleiku city, Gia Lai province - Tel: 059. 3824404 - Fax: 059. 3824711 - Email: gialai@ubgialai.gov.vn
License number: 2006/GP-BC date of issue 14/05/2004 of Cultural Information - Curator: Mr.Ngô Ngọc Sinh